Rice Farming & Processing Business Plan in Nigeria
This rice farming business plan and feasibility study on rice production in Nigeria is regularly updated and can be used to access bank loans, grants, investors and startup business competitions.
To get your own rice farming & processing business plan in Nigeria, pay N10,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After payment, text your full name, email address and title (Rice farming business plan in Nigeria pdf) to 07033378184. Your business plan will be sent to your email within 15 minutes.
TABLE OF CONTENT OF RICE FARMING BUSINESS PLAN IN NIGERIA INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING HIGHLIGHTS:
- Executive summary
- Business ownership
- Farm location
- Our vision
- Our mission
- Business Structure
- Market Analysis
- Market Trends
- Target Market
- Competitive Advantage
- Sales & Marketing Strategy
- Sales Forecast
- Payment Options
- Financial Projections & Costing
- Sources of Startup Capital
Rice Farming in Nigeria
The most popular cereal in the world presently is maize while the second is rice. Its botanical name for general rice is oryza sativa though there are many varieties in the world and quite a few of them currently grown in Nigeria. To a Nigerian in this contemporary age, rice is the most common staple food as hardly will a week go by that an household will not have a taste of it. It is used for functions and it is one of the basic staple foods, it like a fast food for students and it is made as a base delicacy for almost all restaurant. People from all walks of life (rich and poor) consume rice. This made rice and its derivatives on a very high and steady demand by the Nigerian general public for profitable and home use.
From last year’s figure, about 3 percent of the total budgetary expenditure was on rice importation. At about 5.5 million tons of rice at about 365 billion naira per year (that about 1 billion per day on the average). Local production has not been able to cater for the increasing demand on rice at about 5 percent per annum, even though this is a bad news for the government due to need for importation but it is a very good news for the agro-preneurs. Agricultural generally usually has a high profit margin as the scale increases, rice is exceptionally high because of its demand.
In Africa, Nigeria is the third largest producer of rice after Egypt and Madagascar and the largest producer in West Africa. Nigeria produce about 60 percent of the total consumed rice in Nigeria. This is the reason for massive importation of rice and currently, Nigeria is the second largest importer of rice in the world. Nigeria is the largest consumer of rice in West Africa. Nigeria major suppliers are Thailand, China and India.
Even though Nigeria grows rice presently, we still have huge potential to grow more since we are growing at about 40% capacity (40 percent of places where rice can be grown is currently used while the remaining 60 is left uncultivated). This does not obstruct the growing elsewhere too because with proper preparation, rice can be grown anywhere in Nigeria, all the 6 geographical zones in Nigeria can be cultivated but care as to be taken since some rice varieties performed better in some regions while others do not. About 2 million hectares of land is current put to use to produce about 3 million tons of rice annually though Nigeria has about 5 million hectares that rice can grow on and by my estimation, it should produce about 8 million tons of rice.
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The amount needed for rice production in Nigeria is considerably large because of machines, land and labour cost among others. If government could give grants more to the production of rice locally rather than pour all of the fund into importation of rice, it will not only increase the internal generated fund but it will ensure more rice at cheaper production cost and reduce the capital intensiveness of the business(alleviate the bulk need).
The major cultivating area for rice are Ogun, Sokoto, Ebonyi, Enugu, Anambra, Niger and Kogi. The major rice name produced in Nigeria are UMZA rice from Kano State, Mas Rice Mill from Gombe State, Mama Happy Rice from Niger State, Labana Rice from Kebbi State, Ebonyi rice from Ebonyi state, Anambra rice from Anambra state, Olam rice from Nasarawa state, Ofada rice from Ogun state and Igbemo rice from Ekiti state. The wide varieties of rice in Nigeria are Fadama rice, upland rice, lowland rice, indigenous red grain specie.
Production of rice in Nigeria is not a rigid “follow to the letter” process since there are quite a number of species and the geographical conditions is not the same for all geographical regions. So ill touch the basics need and process and if there is a need for special explanation, I’ll add the exceptional cases where applicable.
The Land: Rice farming require for an easier and cheaper planting coat a moderately flat line. It is to be noted that it is not utterly compulsorily flat since ridges can be made to retain water and manual irrigation can be done but this extra cost. The soil type should be a fertile land with high capacity to retain water like the loamy of loamy-clayey soil. The most suitable are the heavy soils like river valley. You might need to consider getting at least a hectare of land either by purchase or lease. The price of the has a wide range (like government reserve may cost as low as #40,000 per annum but you might need at about #1 million to prepare the land, remove trees , roots and another preparation. It might cost you at about #2 million to get a very suitable land).
An unwilled rice and a wet field where rice is grown is called a Paddy. Paddy fields can be primed as at when dry or wet, based on the time of preparation, soil properties. This will influence the type of farm implements to be used. The field should be plowed a little (during dry season) while before any other thing to en joy the main benefit of ploughing. The field is then harrowed just before the new planting season (before the first rain falls) and the crop is seeded. The land to be used for Transplanted rice is to be prepared as wetland. The land is flooded and then plowed or ridged. To reduce denitrification (removal of nitrogen) bunds is constructed to cover the paddy field with water.
Planting: your planting should not be too early or too late into the raining season. Rain fall should have been regular before you plant at around May or early June. The only exemption to this planting is if the place is an area liable to flood, the planting can be done early. Same thing goes for waterlogged and gall midge attached areas.
Direct seeding is possible in hydromorphic (soil with excess moisture) areas by dibbling or broadcasting. The field is divided into 10 by 10 m or 10 by 5 m plots with bunds construction. Herbicides is applied so to control weed because weed is a major issue if you want a good production. Direct seeding can be done with pre-germinated seeds in wet soils. 20 t0 25 cm by 15 to 20 cm spacing can be used while planting.
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Nursery: nursery is necessary for pregermination and rice you intend to transplant. Nursery is quite different from the usual nursery most farmers are accustomed to. It require you to soak the seeds for one day, then they are spread and incubated by covering with polyethylene bag (poly bag) for 2 days. The seed would have spouted out by then. It require 50 by 100 m space for nursery for 1 hectare of land.
The seedlings are spread on puddled nursery field, excess water is drained for a week. You should ensure that the beds are raised high with proportion to the rainfall amount in your area.in gall midge are, carbofuran 1 kg per hectare is added in nursery bed before uprooting to ensure maximum production.
After the expiration of a total of 3 weeks, the seedlings are ready to be transplanted. They are uprooted and you transplant at the rate of 2 or 3 seedling per hill. If it is an early maturing variety, the planting spacing should be 20 by 15 cm while it is a late maturing variety, it should be 20 by 20 cm. there is usually no need for thinning wince you transplanted but you might need to fill in gaps. This gaps should be filled with the remaining seedlings at about a week after transplant.
One crucial that needs special monitoring when dealing with rice plantation is the management of water content. The water level should be maintained up to 5 cm a week after transplanting until grain ripens. The land must not be scorch or parched in any way. The water is drained a week before harvesting.
Fertilizer application and timing depends on the type of rice that is planted. For improved non- lodging varieties, the first application of fertilizer should be 200 kg per hectare of nitrogen phosphorus potassium in ratio 15:15:15 (NPK 15:15:15 for short). It should be applied thoroughly applied to the puddle in the soul before transplanting is made. A month after transplanting, 100 kg per hectare of urea. The second application (ear initiation application), involves broadcast 100 kg per ha of urea at ear opening.
Tall Logging Indica varieties require a broadcasts application of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer 2 weeks after transplanting. The second application is a broadcast 100 kg of urea at ear opening.
Controlling the weed is also very crucial because rice is very tender and easily choked by weed. You should weed at least twice but optimally, 3 time during the rice life span. First is hand weed at about 3rd week after transplanting. All the weed should be removed and packed to a secure place either for decomposition or disposal. Second is chemical weed control which is done by draining the water first, then spray the field with herbicide (e.g. Tamarice TMPL, RisaneTMat) at 3 kg per hectare. It should be done 2 or 3 weeks after transplant has been done. It should be done in the atmosphere that allows the weed to take in the herbicide, i.e. when there is no rain or moisture to wash it away. This makes the herbicide effective. You can then re-introduce water to irrigate the field after 3 days. You should hand week again in two weeks.
Pest and disease control should be taken into notice too. Though most rice are disease resistant, blast, grain discoloration and brown spot are common in Nigeria. Application of TMat 1.5 kg Benlate or Dithane TMM-45 at 1kg in 500 liters of water to control grain discoloration, last and brown spot. The two main pest are birds and insect. Among the insect pests are stem borers and rice bugs. Stem borers eat the stem of rice stalk thereby killing the rice, you can control them with Gamalin 20. For rice bugs, Decis TMat is used so that they cease to suck sap after rice flowering.
To control birds during grain filling, it can be done with the use of scare crows and human scaring the birds away.
Harvesting is done by harvesting long straws close to the ground for lowland rice. Upland rice require other operations. Rice that is harvested close to the grounds permits the use of hand for threshing. You should expect a harvest of about 5 tons per hectare.
Post planting: dry the paddy to about 14 percent moisture content by sun drying for 2 to 3 days. The drying should be gradual and done slowly with great care so to reduce breakage during milling. It could be spread on tarpaulin or on dedicated concrete floor. Mechanical drier could be employed too.
Rice is stored in a cool dry place free of pest like insects or rodents. Paddy would be free of infestation but if infested, fumigation with Phostoxin could be used. Storage is essential because you will need to store your rice before, during and after processing before you sell in market. And good storage unit will ensure that you did not rush off to sell your rice.
Processing: this involve parboiling the rice by soaking first in 70 degrees hot water for about 6 hours. Empty grains will float so you can discard these grains, then parboil by steaming soaked paddy in a jute bug of 10 min. when the husk begin to split open, stop the process. To end the process, mill a pure variety (one variety a time) and it should be done in two stage milling machine.
Few of the advantages of rice farming in Nigeria is the high demand, high return on investment (2 to 3 years full pay back), high yield at about (80 to 100%) and quick maturity. Among the challenges you probably face are funding because it require huge capital, too much importation of rice and this importation reduce the viability and tend to reduce the price of rice and general pest and diseases infestation. It will require between 5 million for a medium commercial rice farming that can plant and process. To succeed, you will need a business plan, capital, land, compactible rice variety, hulling mill and other machinery and storage.
Get your Rice Farming Business Plan in Nigeria today.To order the business plan, pay N10, 000 to:
BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After payment, send your full name, email address and topic (i.e. Rice Farming Business Plan in Nigeria pdf) to 07033378184. Your business plan will be sent to your email within 15 minutes.
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