Motivation as an Instrument for Achievement of Higher Productivity
Numerous studies have been conducted in motivation and its effect on workers in an organization and it is generally accepted that the key to performance in an organization is motivation. This elusive potential has been defined as drive within the individual that depends upon his expectations of levels of satisfaction, which he can achieve and incite him to action
Dubin (1988) sees motivation as combination of forces maintaining human activities, morals zeal and zest which people have for their activities which are directed towards one goals rather than another. Dubin also sees motivation as a complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. According to him morals and incentives are distinctive aspects of a persons connection with his work organization. Generally he believes that motivation starts and maintains an activity along a prescribed line
In the word of Bitta (1969) there are already forces inside the person that start and maintain activity whether we call them drives, instincts, wishes or tensions states, these can be described as the mechanism of the organization.
Motivation explain why people work hard and well and others perform poorly. Three major factors that affect motivation according to Jones are individual needs, the nature of the job and work environment. Often times, the motives are in conflicts and this can lead to several outcomes. Different motives may bring about the same behaviour or similar behaviour and together with the ability to training and correct job placement. Motivation often leads to effective employee performance.
Aiderfers (1972) adopted much broader typology based primarily on the means and techniques used by the organization to motivate its participants. According to him there is a close relationship between organization goals, the nature and power and action used to reduce, motivate and the term of involvement of its members, this motivation power which relies on manipulation of esteem, prestige and symbols is appropriate especially where organizational goals, values, orientation and its participants identifies goals
Gleller man (1968) believes that the desire to achieve is conditional largely by culture and by experience, both of which can be change even in a non-achieving culture such as that of Indian castle system.
Koantz (1980) in his own view believes that motivations are based on needs whether consciously or sub-consciously. Some are primary need such as physiological need for water, air, food, sex, sleep and shelter. Other needs may be regarded as secondary such as self-actualization, self-esteem, affiliation with others; these needs vary in intensity and individual
Koantz analyzing further more on motivation sees management as the creation and maintenance of the performance of individuals forking together in a group towards the accomplishment of a common goals. According to him, a manager cannot do his job without knowing what motivates people.
The necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of this role and the entire process of directing and leading people must be built on the knowledge of motivation. To emphasize the importance of and taking advantage of motivating factors is not to manipulate people but to reorganize motivating factors in designing an environment for performance.
Berelsons and Sterner (1975) in their analysis of motivation says an inner state energizes activity and that directs or channels behavours towards goals. This means that motivation is a general term applies to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. Motivation are those thins which induces an individuals to perform.
Ubeku (1975) observes and studied human behaviour in an organization and his findings shows that the major factor in motivation of employees are the leadership style of the immediate supervisor of the employee. Similarly, Allam gave a useful classification of leadership style into the traditional and modern style. He called the traditional style X and the modern style Y. Theory X assume that people can by nature be lazy, do not like to work, dislike responsibility and are unambitious. They are therefore passive and must be directed, commanded and controlled if the organization must achieve the goal.
Theory Y on the other hand entails opposite assumption. The leadership style assumes that the average human being learns under proper responsibility. People are therefore not naturally passive and resistant to organizational needs. If they are, it is as a result of their experience in the organization concerned and threat of punishment are therefore not only the means of bringing about efforts towards the organizations objective.
Undoubtedly, this theory is more dynamic and realistic. It is consistent with recent findings and show much promise for both the growth of the organization and the employees.
Of al the inputs in the production process, the human effort is the most difficult to control because every human being is different in many respect from another.
In Abraham Maslows theory on motivation (1978) he focused on the fact that human beings have certain basic needs. As one need is reasonably satisfied, an individual expectation and aspiration are realized and a level of need arises. Maslow further maintained that human beings would also be induced to acting in a directing that is likely to satisfy these needs. The need has rank relationship of what Maslow calls a hierarchy of relative prepondency. His concept stressed a hierarchy with certain higher needs being activated in the extent that certain lower needs become satisfied.
Maslow categorized human needs into five, physiological needs, safety belonging or social, esteem and self actualization
In 2.1 all illustrations of Maslow hierarchy of needs, physiological needs are needs for food, water and shelter. They cannot be isolated and they are relatively independent of one another or other motivators. Physiological is necessary for the preservation of life. No man can be motivated into the achievement of higher goals until his need is satisfied.
The second category of needs according to Maslow is safety needs, which include physical and physiological , security, such are clothing, shelter, protection, pension benefits
Belonging or social needs constitute the next level of needs and they are the need for acceptance by others, for love, affection and friendliness. When both physiological and safety needs are fairly satisfied, it will merge the belonging need and affection needs.
Maslow speaks of the need for a firmly based self –esteem and the respect of others. This need is not regarded as being satisfied until the achievement is recognized and appreciated by other satisfaction of this need leads to self confidence while continued failure can lead to withdrawal or frustration.
The last level of need hierarchy is the self-actualization needs. This is expressed as the need to achieve at the level of ones highest potential to become everything one is capable of becoming.
Maslows theory give considerable insight into ways Nigerian worker can be motivated. There is no doubt that the immediate problem confronting the school learner in Nigeria is how to get a job so as to meet his physiological needs reasonably, the next thought will be security. To all his security, fear, he must be assured of sound procedure established in the organization so that in circumstance, he can expect that justice must be done.
Drucker (1982) he said that one belief one has beed rewarded for the task performance determines the level of motivation to perform the task. This means that a person will be motivated to achieve a task if he or she expect to receive a kind of reward for working towards achieving such a task.
Employees with the Guaranty Trust Bank Ogui Road Enugu believes that with the extension of greater effort on their job, they will attain higher output, they would place at expectancy of 90% chance, If the employees see high output as very necessary
On expectancy analysis, one would say that employees are often forces to choose or behave I n whatever way that has the highest motivational force.
Ejiofor (1994) in his work said that “greater ability must be guided on by attractive reward between efforts and rewards and backed up by adequate infrastructural support, If the worker is to be motivated. He also said that the major of cause of low motivation in Nigerian worker I that the worker do not perceive that it is more effort that is decisively instrumental to the reward of work
Stainer (1982) maintained that both financial and non financial are critical part of any organized effort to achieve and maintain a higher level of productivity
Hardly would anyone work for money, people general expect different satisfaction in different proportions from their work. Money is a symbol that represents different things to different people. Many people will be more highly motivated than others to work for money, or every employee, making money is one’s motive for working. The more people earn a higher learning, the more they must receive the motivation to work harder or longer. Money actually used as a keeping an organization adequately staffed
Eze (2001) in his lecture on industrial physiological defines motivation as any condition which initiates, guides and maintains a response. He also sees it as functions of arousal which may by either be appetitive or aversive. Appetitive arousal are conditions which initiates and maintains behaviour, attempting to achieve goals (food) while aversive arousal are those conditions which initiates and maintain responses, attempts to avoid unpleasant or negative conditions (fear). He maintains that motivation is a drive reduction or focuses on the consequences of the action rather that attraction of the behaviour.
Moreover, Nwachukwu (1987) said that human behaviour is motivated and goal directed and it is not easy to motivate an individual for the success of any motivational efforts depends on the extent to which the motivation meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended .
Finally various kinds of incentives are built into the works organization paying a systematic way as work is performed, people work because they expect something out of it
Motivation as key to a greater performance in business organization have various techniques in which if employers will employee, will lead to increase in productivity such as granting fringe benefits, understanding the individual needs and finding ways to satisfy them
Both material and non-material incentives schemes should be used in motivating the worker. Creativity and self-expression should be encouraged in an organization, as this will enhance productivity.
Motivation of human beings should be included in the formation of an organization. This will aid in achieving its desired objectives.
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